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Forum Biblika Seri 18
Yonky Karman, “Humor dalam Kitab Yunus”
The Holy Scripture is usually identified with seriousness, a solid spiritual food. Whether there is a literary genre called humour in the Bible, at least it cannot be denied that elements of humour be present in biblical texts. In Jonah 1 a humorous scene is presented to us when a prophet of YHWH is passively responding to questions posed by the people. Instead of taking initiative to speak to the people on behalf of God, we see the prophet is ironically cornered with questioning.
Agustinus Setiawidi, “Mengucap Syukur di dalam perut Ikan? – Membaca Doa Ucapan Syukur Yunus dari Perspektif Satiris”
It has been commonly argued that Jonah’s psalm in the belly of the big fish is secondary. Jonah should have uttered a lament instead of thanksgiving psalm. However, some fea-tures as main reasons for separating the psalm from the body of the whole narrative can now be re-illuminated in the light of the narrative’s satirically ironic purpose. Conse-quently it becomes less probable that the psalm is secondary. Its literary connection to the preceding and following chapters can be ironically confirmed. Simultaneously reading the book of Jonah as satire may illuminate the meaning of Jonah’s psalm related to the previous and preceding chapters. The incongruity of Jonah’s thanksgiving psalm within its context is the most radical example of satiric elements in the book of Jonah and can be best explained through dramatic ironies. In this respect, the psalm is integral part of the book.
Fransiskus Borgias, “ Teologi Makanan – Menyimak Kitab Suci sebagai Kritik Kebudayaan”
Food is an integral part of the story of salvation in the Holy Scripture. The reflection on food, therefore, could be found in the order of economics of creation and in the order of economics of salvation as well. Due to the possible greed of human being, considered to be dangerous for our common welfare, we are in need of ethics: ethics of Sabath, ethics of loyalty, ethics in the field. We all know that food is for human being. We are in need of those ethics because they inspire people to be in solidarity with other people. Having review some biblical perspectives on food, I hope that what we need is not just food (the production of food, the politics of food, the economics of food); we need also and primarily the theology of food, the spirituality of food. This article is going to explore the possibility of those theologies.
Seto Marsunu, “Suap menurut Perjanjian Lama”
Many people use bribery as an illegal but effective way of achieving their political, econo-mical, and especially legal purposes and ambitions. This fact has urged me to make an observation on what the OT says about it. The Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Wis-dom Literature speak of it. This observation is focused on what they say about bribery. The Law of Moses forbids the practice of bribery, the Prophets condemn it, while the wisdom teachers present their observation of it in their society. This article gives special attention to Ben Sira’s prohibition not to bribe God. What the OT says about bribery is a mirror for modern societies and a reminder for all to do justice by avoiding bribery.
Martin Harun, OFM, “Tuhan itu Allah Kita (YHWH ‘Elohenu)
This article addresses the problem of translating Elohim and JHWH in Indonesian Bible Translations. YHWH, the divine name which after the exile became pronounced as Adonai which has been translated in Greek ( LXX, NT) as Kurios, is best translated as T UHAN (Lord), the closest equivalent for Adonai, Kurios. If one prefers to keep the tetragram YHWH in OT translations, the written name is best pronounced as Tuhan since we are not sure about its original pronunciation. This is also in harmony with Jewish practice. Using the tetragram in the NT for Kurios (if God), is a mistranslation. Elohim (El, Eloha) and Theos as generic words for God can not be left untranslated (Eloim) and should not be translated by Tuhan (Lord) which has a different meaning that better fits Adonai/Kurios. From the point of view of inculturation, the Arabic Malay word Allah remains the best choice.
S.M. Siahaan, “Berbaliklah pada Allah – Penafsiran Historis-Kritis atas Hosea 12:7”
This article discusses Hosea 12.7 based on an approach of critical historical interpretation. Specifically some Hebrew words are discussed, such as khesed, emet, and mispat. According to the writer, in essence the article constitutes an appeal to the Church, i.e. body of believers, to look toward God and approach Him, as it is only in that way that the Church will be enabled to become a witnessing Church.
“Berbahagialah” (P.G. Katoppo)
D.L. Baker & J.J. Bimson, Mari Mengenal Arkeologi Alkitab: Sebuah Pengantar. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2004, 248 hlm.
FORUM BIBLIKA SERI 19
Hasan Sutanto, “Membaca Perumpamaan Anak yanG Hilang dari Sudut Analisis Redaksi (lukas 15:11-32)”
The parable of the two (!) lost sons is read in the context of the whole of Luke’s gospel, starting from the humble people in Luke 1-2, and subsequently concentrating on parallels and contrasts in the parables in and around Luke 15. The leading motif found, is that of respected wealthy religious people who often turn out to be really bad, low and poor, whereas those who are considered low, poor and less religious turn out to be really good, abounding and respectable people.
A. Hari Kustono, “Sekilas Perjalanan Tafsir Sejarah Perumpamaan”
The interpretation of the parables, especially its method, has developed throughout the ages. Main stages of this development are dealt with in this paper. Many early church fathers adopted Philo’s allegorical method. Several elements (e.g. each group of workers at different hours) get their specific allegorical meaning, often christological. Although already opposed by the early Anthiochene fathers, this allegorical and christological approach remains popular throughout the Middle Ages; even until the late nineteenth century, though already rejected too by the great Reformers (Luther, Calvin) in the sixteenth century. At the end of the nineteenth century Adolf Jülicher brings a change by stressing that a parable as a whole offers only one point of comparison, differing from what has been the view of allegorical interpretation. This line has been developed further by C.H. Dodd who corrects Jülicher by stressing that parables should be explained in the original context of Jesus’ time. This point has been developed further again by J. Jeremias, while correcting Dodd’s view of the parables as expressions of realized eschatology. Conscious that the parables have undergone editing by the early church, Jeremias is keen on rediscovering the “ipsissima verba” of Jesus in the parables. This form critical study of parables in their original “Sitz im Leben” has been supplemented by redactional criticism. More recently, the whole historical critical method has been complemented in a very important way by the rather different approaches of new literary criticism and new hermeneutics (a. o. Norman Perrin, Etta Linnemann, Dominic Crossan etc.).
Berthold A. Pareira, “Ma šal dan Perumpamaan-perumpamaan Yesus”
This paper is a study on the meaning of mašal which has been used to identify various literary genres in the Hebrew Bible, starting from proverb/amsal which consists of two lines, toward wisdom poetry and narrative. Though the meaning and purpose of some uses in the Hebrew Bible remain unclear, mašal basically speaks of similarity, likeness, resemblance. Mašal is basically a comparison in the form of a statement but maybe also a question in order to stimulate reflection. For the same purpose Yesus speaks in parables.
Yusak Tridarmanto, “Orang Farisi dan Pemungut Cukai (Lukas 18:9-14)”
The presence of hermeneutical presuppositions in communication requires attention to the socio-cultural system of both the author and even more of the receiver of a biblical text. In the case of Luke 18:9-14, the socio-cultural system of Yesus and Luke and their audiences has to be studied. The contrast between the Pharisee and tax collector in Luke 18:9-14 mirrors a social contrast between different communities in society, a respected high class and a despised low class. But their respective piety / sins are not decisive because of spiritual pride / repentance which turn everything upside down. This parable about a Pharisee in Luke is not meant for the Pharisees but for the disciples of Jesus.
Yonky Karman, “Memahami Perumpamaan Alkitab – Sebuah Perspektif Perjanjian Lama”
Before dealing with Nathan’s parable as an example, this article deals with the various meanings of the OT mašal ; although never used for parable, it is important because of its element of comparison or simile. OT parables are extended or narrative similes, (not metaphors). Human behavior is likened to a well known reality from everyday life. The exact purpose of that comparison has to be understood from its context, the wider dialog, and its addressees. The purpose of Nathan’s parable is both to protect the prophet from the king’s anger, and to help the king to see his fault in a more objective way. Throughout the article, points of similarity and difference between OT parables and Yesus parables are shown.
“20.000 atau 10.000 Hasta: Menyoal Perbedaan Terjemahan Yehezkiel 48:13b” (Semuel O. Aitonam)
Rasul yang Gaul! (Rainy M.P. Hutabarat)
Lie Chung Yen, Pengakuan Maria Magdalena, Saat-saat Intim Bersama Sang Guru, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2005. 232 hlm.
“Hati” (P.G. Katoppo)
G. Greshake, Mengimani Allah Tritunggal. Diterjemahkan oleh Alex Armanjaya & Paul Budi Kleden. Maumere: Ledalero, 2003; 118 halaman.
Forum Biblika Seri 20
St. Sunardi, “ Bahasa Alkitab dan Bahasa Sastra”
This article discusses the possibility of Biblical language to become a humanist language for present-day Indonesians. If we conceive of language as a set of abstract rules, then we recognise that we face many varieties of language. In this respect the question could be posed: Is the Bible able to give birth to language(s) of a subculture? Some of us would feel happy if main themes of the Biblical message, e.g. reconciliation, could bring about rapproachement among the people. To us it would be an intertextual experience.The experiences that we encounter in the Bible as “humanist documents” bear many similarities with literary works. Therefore, the writer holds the opinion that Biblical language can be present in literary language at the inspirational level.
B.F. Drewes, “Terjemahan Komunikatif karena Konkordan”
In discussions about a good theory for Bible translation a concordant translation is often put in opposition to a translation, which communicates the message. In this paper some examples are brought forward in order to show that a concordant translation can function precisely in communicating a message. This of course does not mean that we can translate the Bible by using the concordance in a ‘blind’ way.
Septemmy E. Lakawa, “ Tamar: ‘Untuk Mengenang Perempuan Itu’ (2 Samuel 13:1-39)”
This article discusses 2 Samuel 13:1-39 to reclaim Tamar’s resistant voice. It explores the narrative structure of this passage by highlighting its violent character. Furthermore, it redefines the meaning of this story as Tamar’s story, a story of victim and survivor of violence. Therefore, this passage is identified not only as a violent narrative, but also as a plausible resource of transforming violence against women.
Oikos: Rumah Tuhan dan Isu Globalisasi (Joas Adiprasetya)
Akal Budi (M.K. Sembiring)
R. Kasser, M. Meyer, G. Wurst (peny.). The Gospel of Judas dari Kodeks Tchacos. Diterjemahkan oleh Wandi S. Brata. Jakarta: Gramedia, 2006; xxxix & 220 hlm.
FORUM BIBLIKA 21
Berthold Anton Pareira, “ Bagaimana Topik Keadilan dalam Alkitab masih dapat relevan untuk masalah keadilan sekarang?”
The question of this short article is how to make the future servants of the Word become aware of the great concern of the Bible for justice. It should be dealt with as a topic in class, but that is not enough. The students should know the feelings of the victims by experience and this can be done in the first place through praying the texts (celebration of prayer) and biblio-drama of the narrative texts. The concern for justice is in the first place a question of spirituality.
T.A. Deshi Ramadhani, “ Kekuasaan atau Keadilan? – Pergulatan Tekstual Mazmur 72”
Psalm 72 is read through the lenses of New-Historicism that shows the text as unfinished product without any monolithic meaning in it. It works with the concept of dialogism as developed by Mikhail Bakhtin. With this constructive reading (rather than reconstructive) the textual struggle can come to the surface. This psalm speaks about two different consciousnesses related to the struggle between power and justice. In it a reader can identify with his or her own internal struggle. The reader is free to choose on which side in such a battle of ideologies he or she wants to stand.
Martin Harun, “ Upah yang Kamu Tahan dari Buruh – Jeritan Keadilan dalam Surat Yakobus”
The beginning and the end of James' letter offer a strong witness to God's justice. The poor and oppressed members of the community are God's chosen people, whereas landlords, traders and money lenders who become rich by oppressing others, are waiting for an end without mercy. These harsh words which are meant to comfort those suffering injustice, should be read as well as a call to conversion for the rich who might support the poor instead of adding to their suffering.
Hortensius F. Mandaru, “Kaya-Miskin dalam Lukas-Kisah – Beberapa Lensa Pembacaan”
Scholars have long recognized the importance of issues concerning wealth and poverty in Luke-Acts. This article provides a survey on several of the most important readings on the issues. Readings from variety perspectives are presented under three-main paradigms: historical, symbolic and reader-response. The author also gives some general and critical observations.
Adil (P.G. Katoppo)